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He predicted that Coverdale would become Bishop of Exeter and this took place on 14 August when John Vesey was ejected from his see. Edward VI died of tuberculosis on 6 July However his settlement of the succession lasted barely a fortnight. After a brief struggle between the opposing factions, Mary was proclaimed Queen of England on 19 July.

Following an intervention by his brother-in-law, chaplain to the king of Denmark , Coverdale and his wife were permitted to leave for that country. They then went on to Wesel , and finally back to Bergzabern. On 24 October , Coverdale received leave to settle in Geneva. On 16 December he became an elder of the English church in Geneva, and participated in a reconciling letter from its leaders to other English churches on the continent. In August , Coverdale and his family returned to London, where they lodged with the Duchess of Suffolk, whom they had known at Wesel.

He wrote to William Cole in Geneva, saying that the duchess had "like us, the greatest abhorrence of the ceremonies" meaning the increasing reversion to the use of vestments. His stance on vestments was one of the reasons why he was not reinstated to his bishopric.

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However Hughes believes that it is likely that in his own opinion, he felt too elderly to undertake the responsibility properly. On 7 April he married his second wife, Katherine, at the same church. Eliot described these church walls in part 3 of The Waste Land as having the inexplicable splendour of Ionian white and gold.

Coverdale left no will and on 23 January letters of administration were granted to his second wife, Katherine. Daniell says that it appears that he has no living descendants. Coverdale's legacy has been far-reaching, especially that of his first complete English Bible of For the th anniversary of the Authorised King James Bible, in , the Church of England issued a resolution, which was endorsed by the General Synod.

As indicated above, Coverdale was involved with the first four of the above. He was partially responsible for Matthew's Bible. He was also part of the group of "Geneva Exiles" who produced the Geneva Bible [1] — the edition preferred, some ninety-five years later, by Oliver Cromwell's army and his parliamentarians.

Coverdale's translation of the Psalms based on Luther's version and the Latin Vulgate have a particular importance in the history of the English Bible. The undated print probably was done parallel to his Bible translation in Cosin by more than ninety years. However, his hymnbook also ended up on the list of forbidden books in and only one complete copy of it survives which is today held in The Queen's College, Oxford. His extensive contacts with English and Continental Reformers was integral to the development of successive versions of the bible in the English language.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Australian cricketer, see Miles Coverdale cricketer. The Right Reverend. He was always in demand as a preacher of the gospel. He was an assiduous bishop. He pressed forward with great work in the face of the complexities and adversities produced by official policies. Saints portal Anglicanism portal. Retrieved 15 February However, the exact birth location of York does not appear to be corroborated. An older source Berkshire History — based on Article of even suggests his birthplace as Coverdale , a hamlet in North Yorkshire, but neither is this elsewhere substantiated.

Daniell says that no details are known of his parentage or early education, so simply Yorkshire is the safest conclusion. Daniell states firmly that Coverdale and Rodgers were with Tyndale in Antwerp in , whilst discounting the account of Foxe that Coverdale travelled to Hamburg to assist Tyndale in planned printing work.

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Retrieved 17 February The British Library Board. Retrieved 4 March Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 April British History online. London: Victoria County History, Retrieved 2 April The Stripping of the Altars. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. Retrieved 29 March The Matthew Bible was theologically controversial. Consequently in Coverdale was sent to Paris by Cromwell to superintend the printing of the planned " Great Bible ". Nevertheless, a coalition of English bishops together with French theologians at the Sorbonne interfered with the operations and the Pope issued an edict that the English Bibles should be burned and the presses stopped.

Some completed sheets were seized, but Coverdale rescued others, together with the type, transferring them to London. Also in , editions were published, both in Paris and in London, of a diglot dual-language New Testament. In this, Coverdale compared the Latin Vulgate text with his own English translation, in parallel columns on each page. An injunction was issued by Cromwell in September , strengthening an earlier one that had been issued but widely ignored in This second injunction firmly declared opposition to "pilgrimages, feigned relics, or images, or any such superstitions" whilst correspondingly placing heavy emphasis on scripture as "the very lively word of God".

Sometime between and the exact dates being uncertain , separate printings were made of Coverdale's translations into English of the psalms. These first versions of his psalm renditions were based mainly or completely upon his translation of the Book of Psalms in the Coverdale Bible.

In the final years of the decade, the conservative clerics, led by Stephen Gardiner , bishop of Winchester, were rapidly recovering their power and influence, opposing Cromwell's policies. Cromwell was executed on 28 July Cromwell had protected Coverdale since at least and the latter was obliged to seek refuge again. In April there was a second edition of the Great Bible , this time with a prologue by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer.

According to Kenyon, [10] there were seven editions in total, up until the end of , with the later versions including some revisions. Before leaving England, Coverdale married Elizabeth Macheson d. He translated books from Latin and German and wrote an important defence of Barnes. This is regarded as his most significant reforming statement apart from his Bible prefaces. In September , on the recommendation of Hubert, Coverdale became assistant minister in Bergzabern as well as schoolmaster in the town's grammar school. During this period, he opposed Luther's attack on the Reformed view of the Lord's Supper.

He also began to learn Hebrew, becoming competent in the language, as had been Tyndale. Edward VI —53 was only 9 years old [18] when he succeeded his father on 28 January Immediately upon receiving these appointments he became Duke of Somerset. Coverdale did not immediately return to England, although the prospects looked better for him. Religious policy followed that of the chief ministers and during Edward's reign this moved towards Protestantism. However in March he wrote to John Calvin that he was now returning, after eight years of exile for his faith. He was well received at the court of the new monarch.

He became a royal chaplain in Windsor, and was appointed almoner to the queen dowager, Catherine Parr. There, Coverdale was directly involved in preaching and pacification attempts. The west-country rebels complained that the new English liturgy was "but lyke a Christmas game" — men and women should form separate files to receive communion, reminding them of country dancing.

However Coverdale remained in Devon for several more months, helping to pacify the people and doing the work that properly belonged to the Bishop of Exeter. The incumbent, John Vesey , was eighty-six, and had not stirred from Sutton Coldfield in Warwickshire , his birthplace and long-term residence.

He predicted that Coverdale would become Bishop of Exeter and this took place on 14 August when John Vesey was ejected from his see. Edward VI died of tuberculosis on 6 July However his settlement of the succession lasted barely a fortnight. After a brief struggle between the opposing factions, Mary was proclaimed Queen of England on 19 July. Following an intervention by his brother-in-law, chaplain to the king of Denmark , Coverdale and his wife were permitted to leave for that country. They then went on to Wesel , and finally back to Bergzabern.

On 24 October , Coverdale received leave to settle in Geneva. On 16 December he became an elder of the English church in Geneva, and participated in a reconciling letter from its leaders to other English churches on the continent. In August , Coverdale and his family returned to London, where they lodged with the Duchess of Suffolk, whom they had known at Wesel. He wrote to William Cole in Geneva, saying that the duchess had "like us, the greatest abhorrence of the ceremonies" meaning the increasing reversion to the use of vestments.

His stance on vestments was one of the reasons why he was not reinstated to his bishopric. However Hughes believes that it is likely that in his own opinion, he felt too elderly to undertake the responsibility properly. On 7 April he married his second wife, Katherine, at the same church. Eliot described these church walls in part 3 of The Waste Land as having the inexplicable splendour of Ionian white and gold. Coverdale left no will and on 23 January letters of administration were granted to his second wife, Katherine.

Daniell says that it appears that he has no living descendants. Coverdale's legacy has been far-reaching, especially that of his first complete English Bible of Masking his building excitement, Dr. Sukenik boldly asked for more speci- mens. On November 27 a phone call confirmed the rendezvous the next day. It meant meeting in a politically charged Arab sector in Bethlehem. In spite of a stern warning from his son, Yigael Yadin the chief of operations of the Haganah in the Jewish underground self-defense movement in Pal- estine , of the dangers of warfrom the outcome of the United Nations'vote expected that day, Professor Sukenik boarded an Arab bus.

He was bound for Bethlehem and the shop of Feidi Salahi, where the scrolls were housed. It was now November 28—the day the United Nations was scheduled to vote. But unexpectedly, the vote was delayed by one day and the road to Bethlehem was open to travel. In an Arab shepherd boy, pursuing a lost goat along the shores of the Dead Sea, tossed a stone into a cave and heard the sound of breaking pottery. Climbing into the cave, he discovered several leather scrolls stuffed into pottery jars. Hailed at the time as the greatest discovery of modern times, nothing in the past sixty years has changed that assessment.

From through , eleven caves were excavated, and hundreds of fragments and scrolls were rescued. Archaeologists found scrolls of every book of the Old Testament except Esther. In addition to biblical materials, theologians reveled in the discovery of writings from the Essenes, the group that lived in this area of Qumran and was responsible for hiding the scrolls.

The new discoveries helped to fill in historical details about the life and times of the Essene community. The significance of the biblical scrolls found at Qumran was not in the new information they provided, but in the general confirmation of the ac- curacy of the Masoretic text. The Qumran scrolls predate the previously known manuscripts, Cairensis and Aleppo, by over a thousand years. Many wondered whether the Qumran scrolls would disprove the authenticity of the texts we had been using up to that point.

In fact, the text of the Dead Sea Scrolls confirmed much of the text used in our modern Hebrew Bible. It gives scholars and students complete confidence that the Scriptures we buy in the bookstore are the preserved text God gave to the original writers of the Bible. Papyrus Period The most common writing material during the New Testament period was papyrus, a reed that grew in abundance along the Nile River. The an- cient historian Pliny, writing about AD , describes the preparation of papyrus for a writing surface.

The strips were laid across at right angles to the first layer. The mud from the riverbed was used to adhere the strips to each other. The sheets were dried and then polished with stone, leaving a smooth A Visual History of the English Bible Unidentified Greek papyrus frag- ments that date from the third to the sixth centuries AD, ancient pottery dating to the time of Abra- ham, and ancient coins. Papyrus was the main source of writing ma- terial in the early stages of writing the New Testament.

It is made of plant material and is easily affected by dampness, fire, and excessive handling. Pulp strips taken from near the center were the best quality. The leaves were a little thicker than modern paper and when pasted together in rolls were often up to eight feet long. When necessary they could be even larger. Some writings were lim- ited to the size of the rolls rather than the end of an author's thoughts. The word paper comes from the term papyrus. The Greek term for books biblia is believed to come from the city name Byblos, from which large quantities of papyrus were exported throughout the world.

The word Scripture comes from the Greek term for writing and was the most common term in the New Testament to refer to the Holy Scriptures.

Geneva Bible - dated 1560 - Old Testament - Genesis 1

The library in Alexandria, Egypt, was famous for its extensive collection of ancient books, generally written on papyrus. A library in Pergamum, Asia Minor, became a rival to Egypt's literary dominance and began purchasing great quantities of papyrus from Egypt. In the spirit of commercial compe- tition, Egypt cut off the supply of papyrus. Not to be outdone, Pergamum Ancient Bibles 2 9 This was hand copied using the exact methods of an- cient scribes by Vince Savarino. Early Christians preferred codices book forms for recording Scrip- ture.

Secular letters and other Christian writings were often in Scroll form. Photo: B.


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Jews and Christians treasured the sacred books so much that they became holy objects. The high degree of accuracy demonstrated by the discover- ies at Qumran displayed the care taken in writing and copying the Old Testament Scriptures many hundreds of years after their original production. Even 1, years after the original production of the New Testament, handwritten cop- ies were still faithfully transmitting the Bible. Two basic styles of Greek letters existed during the handwritten period. The uncial hand formed large capital letters without spaces between words. Minuscule was a small cursive type of writing that de- veloped gradually over several centuries.

This style of writing, the speed of the scribal task, and the compact style reduced production costs. Each scribe developed his own distinct style, making the variety of handwriting infinite. Monks copied the earliest minuscule manuscript in Constantinople in AD Manuscript Period: Ninth to Fifteenth Centuries No period in the history of the Bible is more exciting or represents a finer development in art form than the period that produced illuminated manuscripts.

Not only was God's message revered, but Christians also trea- sured and beautified the pages of the sacred text. Monks carefully copied and ornately decorated each manuscript using bright colors and fine vellum or durable paper. Typically they painted portraits of biblical personalities on separate leaves and then carefully inserted them into the text. Today scholars call these "miniatures" because they were painted by hand with the color from a red leaf called minium?

From the end of the first century to the fourth century, scribes copied and translated manuscripts in various languages such as Georgian, Coptic, Ethiopic, Gothic, Syriac, and Latin. It was widely recognized that the Bible must be translated into the languages of the people. With the fourth century came a man who bridged the gap between the classical era and the Middle Ages. Jerome, was far ahead of his time. At a time in history when there was mass confusion sur- rounding the variety and number of biblical manuscripts, Jerome translated the Bible into Latin.

Jerome, a master of biblical Hebrew and Greek, com- pleted his project in twenty-two years. Not only did he standardize the text, Ancient Bibles This edition would later be called the versio vulgata or Vulgate , which sim- ply means "the published translation.

Other critics challenged his abandonment of an earlier Latin version, known as the Old Latin version, which some considered divinely inspired. Many believed the ordained spiritual leadership should authorize a "once for all delivered version" for all believers. They thought that something akin to the divine should be vested in a particular version. Like many new translations, much time passed before its final triumph. Not until AD , under Gregory the Great, did the Vulgate begin to chal- lenge all other versions for superiority.

Its success guaranteed a standardized text of the Latin for medieval Christianity. The Vulgate emerged as the dominant translation and provided a text for transmission throughout history. The next several centuries not only witnessed the transmission of the text but also became a period for the establishment of a distinct art form. Some of the world's most beauti- ful art treasures are these medieval manuscripts with illuminations and miniatures. This is an illuminated Latin manu- script Bible from the late twelfth or early thirteenth century copied be- fore chapter divisions were added by Stephen Langton AD The verse divisions began to be used in the Stephanus Greek New Testa- ment The Book of Kells is the oldest surviving fully il- luminated book of the Middle Ages, usually dated by scholars between the eighth and ninth centuries.

Many scholars believe this is the most beautiful manuscript in existence. The early eighth-century Lindisfarne Gospels, best known for its five carpet pages functioning as decorative frontispieces, no doubt is a close second. The bindings of these treasures, often ornately decorated with precious jewels, ivory, and gold, helped beautify them. The Lindisfarne Gospels, housed in the British Library, is one such beautifully bound book.

In the colophon the original binding is described: Ancient Bibles Billfrith, the anchorite, forged the ornaments that are on it [referring to the binding] on the outside and adorned it with gold and with gems and also with gilded—over silver—pure metal. The process of illumination was time consuming and costly during the Middle Ages. The skins of calves, antelopes, or goats were carefully pre- pared and made smooth for handwriting. When paper became popular and practical in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, illumination became more available and less costly.

Once the text was carefully inscribed on the writing material, spaces at the beginning of sections or chapters were left blank for illuminations or finely drawn pictures of saints or biblical charac- ters. Gold was added for the most wealthy landowners or libraries. After the text was prepared, the leaves were bound in stiff leather covers and ready for use.

By the end of the thirteenth century, secular illumination shops often replaced the scriptoriums of the scribes, and the process led to producing art for profit. This explains the vast number of biblically related manuscripts produced in such expensive formats. They often became status symbols among the rich and powerful. Bibles in a format for the poor were soon to follow. Even for the modestly educated clergy, the Bible was inaccessible—available only in the Latin language.

Latin Bibles sitting A chained Bible Geneva. Bibles were often chained to the pulpit to prevent theft.

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The wooden cover is adorned with a carving of an angel and the Ten Commandments and is accompanied by a twenty-inch chain. Poor Man's Latin Bible Most Bibles produced from about the ninth century were large, beautifully decorated, and produced for the wealthy or those studying in monasteries.

This printed Bible, on the contrary, was small and affordable, with very little illumination so everyone could own one. Photo: M. The exorbitant price and the few extant copies made reading and studying impossible. The clergy could only hope to put their hands on por- tions of Scripture and, for the most part, relied heavily on the small portions of Scripture included in their prayer books. It was impossible to understand the flow, context, and meaning of the Scriptures.

These fragmented texts of the Scriptures, along with the circulation of apocryphal books, led the medieval church into strange and grotesque doc- trines. English medieval language scholar Geoffrey Shepherd portrays the doctrine of hell: "The medieval hell has very little canonical authority.

It was largely and horribly furnished from traditions established in the Apoca- lypses of Peter and Paul, and elaborated in the versions of men who had fed on such documents. Without the availability of the Scriptures and the scarcity of literate clergy, one can easily imagine a church corrupted by false doctrine. The passing of the centuries awaited the reforms ofJohn Wycliffe and Martin Luther. Even with the many controversies of the post-Reformation period, many believe the greatest problem was the inaccessibility of the Bible to common folk prior to the Reformation.

This period also produced a veneration of the words of the Bible that ex- tended beyond the meaning of those words. Shepherd states: The Scriptures, however unclearly discerned, were not only the supreme docu- ments of human achievement, they were divine oracles, texts numinous in them- selves, whose full meaning was linked by divine arrangement with the language in which men received them. The very order of words was meaningful All words, not only biblical words, had an innate force and mystery for these people The very volumes of Scriptures possessed miraculous power.

One needs only to view these magnificently decorated manuscripts to A Visual History of the English Bible Shepherd sums it up: "To translate the Latin Bible would have been to transform the whole frame of knowledge human and di- vine. Am Beginnings of an English Translation English, as we know it today, is a rela- tively recent language.

Over a few de- cades, the language of the Anglo-Saxons, a predecessor to modern English, radi- cally changed. Unlike the evolution of Greek or other ancient languages, English development saw massive changes from one period to the next. By the sixth century, fewer people spoke English or what would later become known as English than currently speak Cherokee.

One thousand years later, English was at its classical best. William Shakespeare's vocabu- lary included about 30, words, compared to the approximate average vocabulary of 15, words for an educated person today. A' "m SestryndeA! The English language represented here isa rela- tively late form ofthe language that developed in the British Isles. Ancient Bibles The Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, includes , words; with technical words, there are about , words in English.

The Wiki- pedia Encyclopedia estimates million to million people speak En- glish as their first language. Nearly one-third of the world's population 1. Many think of English as the first genuinely global language. Its early history re- cords successive invasions, beginning with Julius Caesar in 55 BC. The Angles, Saxon for ambiguity, c , T. The love of the Anglo-Saxon for ambiguity, innuendo, and word play—shared with English in every age—characterizes its written literature. About thirty- five years later AD , Aidan, a Celtic evangelist from the church in Ire- land, independently began missionary work in the central part of England, along the border of what is now Scotland.

The next two centuries witnessed the conversion of England to Christianity and the demand for Scripture in this new emerging language. A Gothic translation of the Gospels called Codex Argenteus or "Silver Book," so called because it was copied in letters with a silvery hue, repre- sents a pre-English language. Translated by the famous missionary Ulfilas in about AD for the heathen Goths, it represents a pre-Old English ver- sion in the first vernacular translation ever produced. Several phrases, when compared, reveal many similarities of the Germanic tongue to Old English.

A legend describes his habit of singing portions of Scripture in a highly complicated vernacular meter. The only surviving manuscript attributed to Caedmon is a hymn about creation: Now we ought to praise the Guardian of the kingdom of heaven, Nu sculon herigean heofonrices Weard, the might of the Creator and his understanding, Meotodes meahte ond his modgethanc the works of the Father of glory, how he, the eternal Lord, weorc Wuldorfceder, swa he wundra gehwxs established a beginning of each wonder.

He, the holy Creator, first created He xrest sceop eorthan bearnum heaven as a roof for the sons of the earth. Then the Guardian of humankind, the eternal Lord, tha middangeard moncynnes Weard, the almighty Prince, afterwards created ece Drihten cejter teode the world, the land for the people. It began sometime at the beginning of the eighth century. The Venerable Bede, a great scholar of his day, con- tinued the work ofAldhelm.

Most commonly known for his ecclesiastical his- tory, he also translated the Gospel ofJohn. Tradition records his completion of the task at the very hour he lay dying. Unfortunately, his work has not survived. Glossing, an Anglo-Saxon pedagogical method for introducing Latin to the reader, placed a word-for-word vernacular trans- lation in direct juxtaposition to the Latin text.

Undoubtedly the most fa- mous example of this is seen in the eighth-century Lindisfarne manuscript, which contains a literal rendering of the text into an Anglo-Saxon dialect by the scribe named Aldred.


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Alfred managed to raise a ragtag army and beat off the attacks of the Vikings at the Battle of Edington. The victory saved Perhaps the most the last remaining English-speaking kingdom. Alfred important biblical contributed to developing English by insisting that expositor before schools teach in the vernacular. While Aelfric cannot be dubbed a translator, his influence on the use of the vernacular set the stage for the translation of the Wessex Gospels. His partial translations often called homilies of the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Kings, Job, Esther, and the Maccabees gained influence and set him apart as a key figure in the history of the English Bible.

Were it not for certain events of the eleventh century, the complete Bible might well have been the progressive result of the work of Aelfric. The inva- sion of the Normans, however, delayed the development of the Anglo-Saxon language and any continual work on an English translation of the Bible. The tenth-century translation of the four Gospels into Old English known as the Wessex Gospels is the first extended portion of the Bible trans- lated into English.

The Wessex Gospels is anonymous and does not bear a date. Several extant manuscripts, however, none of which are the original, bear witness to its early date. The earliest known manuscript dates to the twelfth century AD. French invasion. The strong French influence delayed the progress of an En- glish Bible for two more centuries, as it would take this long for the Anglo- Saxons to assimilate the French influence into the Anglo-Norman language.

For nearly years following the Norman invasion, English people were left with some Anglo-Saxon liturgy religious instruction through the church calendar , lyric songs,22 and poems as a substitute for the Bible. Pop- ular medieval dramas depicted biblical themes. In fact, many of these dramas developed over the years and were repeated in every period of the English language. They were forced to depend on plays, oral transmissions of Scripture stories, and Latin and French Bibles of the aris- tocracy and the priesthood for their understanding of God's Word.

Tb 1 ov t ] Finally, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, things started to change.

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Rolle's elaborate the sacred text were commentary became a standard for more than a cen- i. It not only influenced John Wycliffe's thinking simply not available. From the mid-twelfth century a genuine English language began to replace the Anglo-Norman language. Various homilies and renderings of small passages of the Gospels began to emerge. In fact, simple phrases and short sentences ofAnglo-Saxon would eventually find their way into the English translation of Tyndale s New Testament in the six- teenth century24 The laity, discontent with the claims of the Roman Church, refused to accept the church as supreme.

France and England's attempts to unite over their support of popes Urban and Clement brought the respect of the church to an all-time low, and common people began to question its A Visual History of the English Bible England, in an age immortalized by Chaucer, was finally ready for the Scriptures in her own beloved tongue. The pre-Wycliffe period epitomized the notion that only the clergy could own and read the Scriptures.

The clergy not only prevented the laity from reading the Scriptures; copies of the sacred text were simply not available. They were either not in the laity's language, or they were too expensive to purchase. The use of the Bible by the poor was not possible until the end of the fourteenth century. Sarcastically called "poor men's" Bibles, these simply written books in the common language with very little adornment fed the hungry soul. The Bible exclusively reserved for the clergy and wealthy was about to end. We now turn to the man who changed all of that for all time. The large hat he wore on this trip directed the water in trickles down his long wool tunic, allowing only his feet to catch the runoff.

Evening was closing in around him. How he longed to find a drier spot rather than huddle under a broad tree. Straightening his stance, he turned in a circle, straining to see a light or even a sniff of smoke from a cooking fire where he might find comfort that night. Nothing appeared except a sil- houette on the horizon ahead to the left of the path. Could it be a cave or an abandoned hut? As this somber, introspective man took refuge in the semi-dry hut, he quietly reflected over the past twenty years and pondered the future of his movement. For some months he had felt his mortality more than ever.

Had he done all he could for his Savior? Would his work continue after his earthly exit? What if his message—so faithfully taught to his followers— ceased after he was gone? What more could he do to insure the continuation of the principles he was willing to die for? The principles, that is, of justification by faith, a com- plete rejection of transubstantiation and the sale of indulgences, and the importance of giving every plowman, shopkeeper, and landowner access to the Bible.

His thoughts became as dismal as the weather outside.